Sexual dysfunction is a common problem among females.  Almost half of all females have persistent sex problems, such as little or no sex drive, trouble reaching as orgasm or pain during intercourse. It is a disorder characterised by a persistent or recurrent inability to attain sexual arousal or to maintain arousal until the completion of a sexual activity.

This problem can also be due to an inadequate lubrication swelling response normally present during arousal and sexual activity. This should be distinguished from a general loss of interest in sexual activity and from other sexual dysfunctions , such as the anorgasmia  (orgasmic disorder ) and hypo active sexual desire disorder , which is characterised as a lack or absence of sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity for sort of time.

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Sexual dysfunction includes pain during intercourse, Spasm ( involuntary painful contraction) of the muscles around the vagina, and lack of desire in sex and problems with arousal or orgasm. These problems may cause distress to the females.


Normal sexual function is a complex interaction involving both the mind and the body. The nervous, circulatory and endocrine hormonal systems , all interact with the mind to produce a sexual response.

Sexual function and response may include the following also –

Motivation – It is the wish to engage in or continue sexual activity. There are many reasons for wanting sexual activity, including interest in or desire for sex. Sexual interest or desire may be triggered by thoughts, words, sights, smells, or gentle touch. Motivation may be obvious at the outset or may build once the female is aroused.

Arousal – Arousal has a subjective element – sexual excitement that is felt and thought about. It also has  physical element  I.e. an increase in blood flow to the genital area. In females the increased blood flow causes the clitoris and vaginal walls to swell ( this is called engorgement ). The increased blood flow also causes vaginal secretions or lubrication to increase. Blood flow may increase without the female being aware of it and without her feeling aroused.

Orgasm – Orgasm is the climax or peak of sexual excitement. Just before orgasm, muscle tension throughout the body increases. As orgasm begins, the muscles around the females vagina contract rhythmically.  Females may have several orgasms.

Resolution – Resolution is a sense of well being and widespread muscular relaxation. Resolution typically follows orgasm. However, resolution can occur slowly after highly arousing sexually activity without orgasm. Some female can respond to additional or more stimulation almost immediately after resolution.


For females, desire may develop once sexual activity and stimulation begin. Sexual stimulation can trigger excitement and pleasure and physical responses including increased blood flow to the vaginal area.

Desire for sexual satisfaction builds as sexual activity and intimacy continue, and a physically and emotionally rewarding experience fulfils and reinforces the woman’s original motivations. Some females may feel sexually satisfied whether they have an orgasm or not. Other females have much more sexual satisfaction with an orgasm.

Desire before sexual activity typically lessens as female’s age but temporarily increases when females, regardless of their age, have a new partner.

Desire for sex is based on a complex interaction of many activities. It is based on a complex interaction of many things. For females, desire may develop once sexual activity and stimulation begin.

Most of  the females, for example, they may be attracted to a person engage in sexual activities for several reasons such as  physical pleasure, affection, love, romance, or intimacy. However, females are more likely to have emotional motivations, such as--

Affecting  intimacy.

Physical and  emotional  well being.

New experiences.

Beliefs .

Modern life  style.

Current  relationship.

To confirm their  desirability.

To please or  placate a new partner.


Symptoms of dysfunction are very much depending on what type of sexual dysfunction some one is experiencing.

Low sexual desire – This is the most common of female sexual dysfunctions involves a lack of sexual interest and willingness to be sexual.

Orgasmic disorder – Females have persistent or recurrent difficulty in achieving orgasm after sufficient sexual arousal and ongoing stimulation.

Sexual arousal disorder – Female’s desire for sex might be intact, but  have difficulty with arousal or are unable to become aroused or maintain arousal during sexual activity.

Sexual pain disorder – Females have pain associated with sexual stimulation or vaginal contact.



Many females experience problems with sexual function at some point, and some have difficulties throughout  their lives. Female sexual dysfunction can occur at any stage of life. It can be in certain sexual situation or in all sexual situations.

Many factors cause or contribute to various types of sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, causes are considered physical or psychological.  However, the two types of causes cannot be separated. Psychological factors can cause physical changes in the brain, nerves, hormones, and, eventually, the genital organs. Physical changes can have psychological effects, which, in turn, have more physical effects. Some factors are related more to the situation than to the females. Also, the cause of sexual dysfunction is often unclear.

Sexual response involves a complex interplay of physiology, emotions, experiences, beliefs, lifestyle and relationships. Disruption of any component can affect sexual desire, arousal or satisfaction, and expert sexual advice often involves more than one approach.

Persistent, recurrent problems with sexual response, desire, orgasm or pain, that distress  or strain  relationship with the partner are known medically as sexual dysfunction.

Many factors causes or contribute to various types of sexual dysfunction. Few of them may be as follows –

Psychological  Factors – Depression and anxiety are commonly contribute to sexual dysfunction. It has been observed that many females are facing sexual dysfunction because of these reasons, sexual dysfunction becomes less severe when antidepressants effectively treat the depression. Various fears like –of letting go, of being rejected , or of losing control and low self esteem can contribute to sexual dysfunction.

Physical Factors – Various physical conditions and medication may lead or contribute to sexual dysfunction. Hormonal changes, which may occur with ageing or result from a disorder, can interfere. Any number of medical conditions, including cancer, kidney failure, multiple sclerosis, heart disease and bladder problems, can lead to sexual dysfunction. Certain medications, including some antidepressants, blood pressure medications, antihistamines and chemotherapy drug can decrease  sexual desire and  body’s ability to experience orgasm.

After menopause, change in the vagina and urinary tract ( genitourinary syndrome of menopause ) can also affect sexual function. It happens due to the tissues of the vagina can become thin, dry, and inelastic after menopause because estrogen levels decrease. This condition, called vulvovaginal atrophy ( atrophic vaginitis ), can make intercourse painful.

Urinary symptoms that can occur at menopause include a compelling need to urinate ( urinary urgency ) and frequent tract infections.

Similar symptoms can also result from removal of uterus and hormonal changes that occur after a baby is delivered.

Hormonal Factors – Lower estrogen levels after menopause may lead to changes in women’s vaginal tissues and sexual responsiveness. A decrease in estrogen leads to decreased blood flow to pelvic region, which can result in less vaginal sensation, as well as needing more time to build arousal and reach orgasm.

The vaginal lining also becomes thinner and less elastic, particularly if someone is not sexually active. These factors can lead to painful intercourse. Sexual desire also decreases when hormonal levels decrease.

Female body hormone levels also shift after giving birth and during breast feeding, which can lead to vaginal dryness and can affect  desire to have sex.

Situational Factors – Factors related to the situation may also affect female dysfunction in various types as --   

The female’s own situation – Females may have a low sexual self image if they are having fertility problems or had surgery to remove a breast, the uterus or any other body part associated with sex.

The personal relationship – Females  may not trust or may have negative feelings about their sex partner. They may feel less attracted to their partner than earlier in their relationship.

The Culture – Women may come from a culture that restrict sexual expression or activities. Cultures sometimes make women feel ashamed or guilty about sexual activities. Females and their partners may come from cultures that view certain sexual practices differently.

The surroundings – The situation may not be erotic, private, or safe enough for uninhibited sexual expression.       

Distractions or emotional stress – Family, work, finances or other things can preoccupy women and thus interfere with sexual arousal.

Long standing conflicts with your partner – If due to any reason, conflict about sex or other aspect of relationship is going on between partners, it may diminish sexual responsiveness as well. Different cultural and religious issues and problems with body image and language can also contribute in dysfunction.

Previous experiences – Female’s previous experiences can affect their psychology and sexual development, causing problems, as in the following -    

Negative sexual or other experiences may lead to low self esteem, shame or guilt.  

Emotional, physical or sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence can teach children to control and hide emotions, some may find it a useful defence mechanism.

However, females who control and hide emotions may have difficulty expressing sexual feelings.

Sometimes if any females lose her parents or another loved one during childhood, they may have difficulty becoming intimate with a sex partner because they are afraid of a similar loss, sometimes without being aware of it.

Various sexual worries can impair sexual function. As females may be worried about unwanted consequences of sex such as pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection or about their partner’s sexual performance.

Treatment of sexual dysfunctions

A number of studies have explored the factors that contribute to female sexual dysfunctions. These factors include both psychological as well as physical factors. It may be due to psychological factors only or a combination of different factors.

There are several sub types of female sexual arousal dysfunctions. These might be since birth or acquired, might be based on context, might occur in all general situation  or in specific situation.

This depends on mind set also, this dysfunction might occur with a spouse but not with other partner or with multiple partners.  

The length of time the dysfunction has existed and the extent to which it is partner or situation specific, as opposed to occurring in all situations, may be the result of different causative factors and may influence the treatment for the dysfunction.

There has been little research of the impact of individual factors on female dysfunction. Such factors include stress, level of fatigue, gender identity, general health, and other individual attributes and experiences, such as dysfunctional sexual beliefs that may affect sexual desire or response.

Over exposure to Adult  videos or movies. This is also thought to lead to poor body image, self consciousness and lowered self esteem.

Female dysfunction can also occur due to major Psychiatric disorders.

If dysfunction is due to Physical, Psychiatric problems as high blood pressure, depression, anxiety, disabilities, other  chronic disease it is recommended to consult with specialist and the treatment must be according to doctors advice and under their supervision.    

When the dysfunctions are due to psychological or situational, females can work with their healthcare treatment plan. It is important to understand the psychological cause before choosing therapies.

There might be several plans to treat non medical dysfunctional problem, few of those are as follows –

Arousal techniques – Talk to your partner about different ways, you can enhance desire and arousal. Consider making changes to your sexual routine. You may also try erotic materials such as sexual stimulation devices, informational sexual books and videos etc. 

Pain reliever – There are several approaches to reducing vaginal pain during intercourse which certainly help you to get rid of the pain. Female can also try different sexual positions, vaginal lubricants or relaxation techniques before sex. Vaginal dilators may also be used.

Hormone therapy – Depending on the symptoms, females may use topical creams, vaginally administered medications or hormones taken orally or applied to their genital skin.

Sex education – It has been observed that a lower level of sex education was frequently linked with higher risk of female sexual dysfunction. This include general education as well as detailed and healthy  sex education. Sometimes, females can have mistaken beliefs about sex that prevent them from fully enjoying it. They may believe that aim of all sexual activity is orgasm through vaginal penetration alone. Clearing up any myths or misunderstandings and  learning sexual techniques may help to treat dysfunctions.    

Vagina dilator – Females with vaginismus can try dilator training, which involves inserting a smooth plastic dilator into the vagina while trying to relax the pelvic floor muscles. Once a female feels comfortable with one size, may move up a size until she can have sexual intercourse without pain.

Pelvic floor exercises – Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia . Kegel floor exercises very supportive for female sexual dysfunctions . It also strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, which support the uterus, bladder, small intestine and rectum.

Engaging  in many types of sexual activities – Short time direct intercourse will not fulfil your desire of complete sex, stroking and kissing responsive parts of the body and touching each other’s genitals enough before initiating intercourse may enhance intimacy and lessen anxiety.

Respect and love – Females need trust, respect, love and emotional intimacy to respond sexually. There should not be any kind of conflicts before or during intercourse. Couples may need help learning to resolve conflicts which can interfere with their relationship.

Spare time for sexual activity – Normally females are used to multitasking, may be preoccupied with or distracted by other activities like personal work, household chores, children and community. So every time females can’t be ready for sex. Making sexual activity a priority and recognising how counter productive distractions  may help.

Practising mindfulness – Mindfulness involves learning to focus on what is happening in the moments, without making judgements about for monitoring what is happening. Being mindful helps free females from distractions and enables them to pay attention to sensations during sexual activity by staying in the moments.

Choosing a good time and place – Females always prefer good time and place for sexual activities. Late at night when a female is ready for sleep after finishing daily household works is certainly not a good time for sex. Females are shy by nature,  Make sure the place is private and safe can help if she is afraid of discovery or interruption. Enough time should be allowed, and a setting that encourages sexual feeling may help.

Prevent unwanted consequences – Obviously females like sex, but fear is always there for unwanted pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections or inhibits desire. In this situation female doesn’t gets aroused and can’t enjoy sex properly. So it becomes necessary to take step to prevent unwanted consequences.

Spent time together – Females who talk and meet each other regularly are more likely to want and enjoy sexual activity together. They always prefer sex with the person whom they know well rather than with stranger.

Open Communication – It is necessary to talk and listen with your partner it makes a world of difference in your satisfaction. Even if you are not used to talking about your likes and dislikes, learning to do so and providing feedback in a non threatening way sets the stage for greater intimacy.

Use lubricant – A vaginal lubricant may be helpful during intercourse if you have vaginal dryness or pain during sex. You can use vaginal  lubricant  yourself  to get more sensation and pleasure or you can ask your partner to do the same gently and deeply.

Use a device – Females may get more arousal with stimulation of the clitoris. Ask your partner to do it with his finger or a vibrator of your choice  to stimulate your clitoris.

Practice healthy lifestyle habits – Excess alcohol is not good in anyway, No or limit your alcohol consumption, drinking too much can blunt your sexual responsiveness. Regular physical activity can increase your stamina and elevate your mood, enhancing romantic feelings. Learn ways to decrease stress so you can focus on and enjoy sexual experiences for very long time.

Seek counsuling – Consult with a counselour or therapist who specialises in sexual and relationship problems. Therapy often includes education about how to optimise your body’s sexual response, ways to enhance intimacy with your partner, and recommendations for reading healthy sexual materials or couple exercises.  

Well to Conclude – Just becoming aware of what is required for a healthy sexual response may be enough to help women change their thinking and behaviour. However more than one treatment is often required because many women have more than one type of sexual dysfunction. Sometimes a multidisciplinary team, including sex counsellors, pain specialists, psychotherapists and physical therapists, is needed.


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Sources – Jitendrasxnblogs / site has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, related books and journals. We always avoid using inauthentic references.





Disclaimer –

This article / blog is for information purpose only, but by no means it is a complete and exhaustive explanation on the whole topic. This blog is intended for individual of 18 years and above. This blog/site never answer any personal question or provide any sex advice, nor it’s intended as a substitute for therapy.












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